Hematologic Effects of Averrhoa bilimbi (Kamias) Ethanolic Fruit Extract

Maria Bea C. Lao


Clinical laboratories employ in vitro anticoagulant, such as Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) for complete blood count (CBC), which is commonly synthetic and expensive. Averrhoa bilimbi (kamias), which contains oxalate, may be a natural substitute source of anticoagulant. This research aimed to assess the influence of kamias ethanolic fruit extracts (KEFE) on various CBC parameters and cells microscopically. Comparisons of different concentrations of KEFE-treated blood (2, 3, 4 mg/ml) were done against the EDTA-blood. The study was an experimental research. Blood were collected from 16 volunteers free from cardiovascular diseases with normal CBC. The clotting time of the blood with KEFE showed no visible coagulation for concentrations of 3 mg/ mL and 4 mg/mL even after 180 minutes of observation, while the blood with 2 mg/mL and plain blood showed a clot formation within 15 minutes. Based on the CBC parameters result, the blood treated with KEFE showed significant difference only for the platelet count between groups (p>0.000); the rest of the CBC parameters were insignificantly different. The microscopic evaluations of KEFE-blood smears were comparable to EDTA blood smears. With this, the KEFE demonstrated comparable anticoagulation activity towards EDTA. The kamias, KEFE, is a feasible substitute anticoagulant for CBC testing.


In vitro anticoagulant, anticoagulant, complete blood count, CBC, clotting time, Averrhoa bilimbi, kamias, fruit extracts, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA, oxalic acid, oxalate, clinical laboratories

Full Text:



Bhasker, B. & Shantaram, M. (2013). Morphological and biochemical characteristics of averrhoa fruits. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemical and Biological Science. IJPCBS 2013 3(3) 924-928.

Bishop, M.L., Fody, E.P., & Schoeff, L.E. (Eds.). (2013). Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Techniques, and Correlations. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Campbell T.W. & Coles, E.H. 1986. Avian haematology and blood chemistry. In: Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ed.E.H. Coles). Fourth edition, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, USA, pp 279-331.

Daud, N., Hashim, H. & Samsulrizal, N. (2013). Anticoagulant activity of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The Open Conference Proceedings Journal. 4 21-26.

Dayaganon, A.J.B., Sarpong, S.M.L., Sapilan, J.B., & Fernandez, A.M. (2014). Anticoagulant Activity of Horseradish Moringa oleifera and Oregano Coleus aromaticus Leaf Extracts and Kamias Averrhoa bilimbi Fruit Juice on Human Blood Samples. Optima, 1(1).

Evangelista J. et al., (2012). Preliminary assessment of in vitro anticoagulant activity vs. heparin 1,000 IU and cytotoxicity of selected Philippine medicinal plants. International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering. Volume 3 No. 6.

Johnston, A., Cullen, G., & Holt, D.W. (1991). Quality assurance for cyclosporin assays in body fluids. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, 20(1), 3-8.

Lima, V.L.A.G.D., Mélo, E.D.A., & Lima, S. (2001). Physicochemical characteristics of bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi L.). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 23(2), 421-423.

McPherson RA. Laboratory statistics. In: , McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry’s clinical diagnosis and management by laboratory methods, 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier, 2007:91-98

Peter, L.M. (2007). Characterization and Modeling of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. American Chemical Society

Rodak, B.F., Fritsma, G.A., & Doig, K. (2012). Hematology: clinical principles and applications. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Setiawan, T. (2008). Colonization with Heligmosomoides polygyrus Suppresses Mucosal IL-17 DOI: 181 (4) 2414-2419;

Turgeon, R. (2010). The role of phloem loading reconsidered. Plant Physiol 152: 1817-1823


  • There are currently no refbacks.